Tribals of Jharkhand, India
Introduction: Jharkhand is a newly created state in Indian and it was carved out of the southern part of Bihar on 15th November 2000. The word “Jharkhand” is originated from original tribal language, which means land of Jungles. Jharkhand is considered as a rich state because of it minerals.
History: Jharkhand is separated from Bihar in 2000 but the movement started in early 1900s and since then the demand of separate state was alive. The good tribal rulers rule the area and are known as the Munda Raja. Munda raja are still existing in this region. During the Mughal Empire, the Jharkhand region was known as “Kukara” region. This area came under British after 1765 and known as “Jharkhand”. For more historical information on tribals of Jharkhand, India, please visit [http://www.artilysis.com/]
FLORA ADN FAUNA: Jharkhand state has a very rich variety of flora and fauna and the most famous is “Betla National Park” declared as “Project Tiger Reserves” in 1974. The Hazaribagh Wildlife Sanctuary is very similar to Betla National Park of Palamu.One Zoological Garden is also located about 16 km from Ranchi.
DEMOGRAPHICS AND TRIBALS: Jharkhand has a population of around 26.90 million, the sex ratio in Jharkhand is 941 females to 1000 males. The tribals population is around 28%.Jharkhand state has been a home to a variety of tribal communities since time. Jharkhand has 32 primitive tribal groups. These are Munda, santhal, Oraon , Gond, Kol, kanwar, Savar, Asur, Baiga, Banjara, Bathudi, Bedia, Binjhia, Birhor, Birjia, Chero, Chick-Baraik, Gorait, Ho, Karmali, Kharwar, Khond, Kisan, Kora, Korwa, Lohra, Mahli, Mal-Paharia, Parhaiya, Sauria-Paharia and Bhumij.
TRIBAL FESTIVALS IN JHARKHAND:
SARHUL: Sarhul is celebrated during spring season and the Shaal trees get new leaves. It is a worship of the village deity who is considered to be the protector of the tribes. People sing and dance a lot when the sprouting. The deities are worshipped with shaal flowers. These shaal flowers represents the brotherhood and friendship among villagers and Pahan the priest, distributes shaal flowers to every villager. Then the Prasad is distributed among villagers. The Prasad id a rice made wine called Handia
KARAM: This festival is a worship of KARAM devta, the god of power, youth and youthfulness.Karam festivals is held on the 11th day of the phases of moon in Bhadra month. The groups of young villagers go to jungle and collect wood, fruits and flowers. These are required during the Puja of KARAM God. During this entire period people sing and dance in groups. The entire valley seems to be dancing with the drumbeats. This is one of the rare example of such a vital and vibrant youth festival in Jharkhand’s Tribal area. At the same time, the unmarried young tribal girls celebrate the Jawa festival, which has its own kind of songs and dance. This is held mainly for the expectation of good fertility and better household. The unmarried girls decorate a small basket with germinating seeds. It is believed that the worship for good germination of the grains would increase the fertility. The girls offer green melons to the Karam deity as a symbol of ‘son’ which reveals the primitive expectation of human being, i.e grains and children. The entire tribal area of Jaharkhand becomes tipsy during this time.
TUSU PARAB OR MAKAR: This festival is mostly seen in the area between Bundu, Tamar and Raidih area of jaharkhand. This belt has a great history during India’s independence movement. TUSU is a harvest festival held during the winter in the last day of Poush month. It is also for the unmarried girls. Girls decorate a wooden/ bamboo frame with coloured paper and then gift it to the nearby hilly river. Although there is no documented history available on this festival but it has huge collection of scintillating songs full of life and taste. These songs reflect the simplicity and innocence of tribal people.
HAL PUNHYA: HAL PUNHYA is a festival which begins with the fall of winter. The first day of Magh month, known as “Akhain Jatra” or “Hal Punhya”, considered as the beginning of ploughing. The farmers, to symbolize this auspicious morning plough two and half circles of their agricultural land this day is also considered as the symbol of good fortune.
BHAGTA PARAB: This festival comes between the period of spring and summer. Among the tribal people of Jharkhand this festival is best known as the worship of Budha Baba. People fast during the day and carry the bathing Pahan the priest, to the tribal mandir called Sarana Mandir. The Pahan sometimes called Laya, gets out of the pond, the devotees make a chain, locking their thighs with each other and come forward to offer their bare chest to Laya for walk over. After worship in the evening, devotees take part in dynamic and vigorous Chhau Dance wit lots of gymnastic actions and masks. The next day is full of primitive sports of bravery. The devotees pierce hooks on skin and get tied at one end of a long horizontal wooden pole, which is hanging on the top of a vertical Shal wood pole. The height goes up to 40 feet. The other end of the pole which is connected with a rope, pulled around the pole by the people and the tied devotee display the breath-taking dance in the sky. This festivals is more popular in the Tamar region of Jharkhand.
ROHIN: This festival is perhaps the first festival of Jharkhand. It is a festival of sowing seeds in the field. Farmers starts sowing seeds from this day but there is no dance or song like other tribal festivals but just a few rituals. There are some other festivals like Rajsawala Ambavati and Chitgomha are also celebrated with Rohin.
BANDNA: Bandana is one of the most famous festivals celebrated during the black moon of month of Kartik (Kartik Aamavashya). This festival is mainly for the animals. Tribals are very close with animals and pets. In this festival, people wash, clean, paint, decorate feed well and put ornaments to their cow and bulls. The song dedicated for this festival is called Ohira which is an acknowledgement for animal’s contribution in their day-to-day life. The belief behind this festival is animals are integral part of life and have souls as human being do. The most exciting day of the bandana week is the last day. Closured Bulls and buffalos are chained to a strong pole and they are attacked with a dry animal Hyde. The angry animals hit the dry skin with its horns and the crowd enjoys. Generally the colour used for decorating animals are natural colours and the is artwork is of folk type.
For more traditional information on tribals of Jharkhand, India, please visit [http://www.artilysis.com/]
TRIBAL ARTWORK FROM JHARKHAND:
CHHOU MASK: CHHOU is a type of tribal dance done with colourful masks. The mask made of Paper mache’ in Singhbhum district of Jharkhand. Paper mache’ of Saraikela and Charinda are famous for Chhou dance. Some times it appears similar to the masks used in kerla in Kathakali.
TRIBAL WOODWORK: JHARKHAND is full of good quality saal forest and hence wooden artwork in the should of Tribals of Jharkhand. The wood is used for cooking, housing, farming, fishing etc. The tribal artists of some villages have explored their creativity in art, like beautifully decorative door panels, toys, boxes, and other household articles.
TRIBAL BAMBOO ARTWORK: The bamboo found in this area are different from bamboos of Southeastern Asia. There is tourist place Netarhat in jahrkhand which means a Bazaar of Bamboo. These bamboos are thin in shape and strong and flexible. The tribal people use bamboo for making baskets, hunting & fishing equipments. Specially the bamboo made Fishing cage is very attractive.
TRIBAL POTTERY: Tribal Pottery is a part of tribals but still no specific working style observed.
TRIBAL ORNAMENTS: Tribals like ornaments very much. They use metallic ornaments made of Gold, Silver, brass, copper for their earrings, nose ring, bracelets, bangles etc.
GODNA: THE TRIBAL TATTOS: Tribals use ornaments a lots but the spiritual concept of ornament is very different. They believe that all ornaments are human made and are mortal. Therefore they invented tattoos as permanent ornament. Majority of tribal woman have tattoos called Godna, on their bodies. However, tribal man also use Godna.They believe that Godna are the only ornament which goes with them after death also.
TRIBAL WEAPONS: Bow and arrow is the symbolic weapon of the tribals of this area. Apart from this they use iron made Axes and Doulies and Ghana (Big hammer).
TRIBAL METALWORK: Most of the metal works are done for agricultural purpose, hunting and weapons. There are specific communities like Lohar, Malhar and Thentri have expertise in metal work.